Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science:eISSN 2384-4272 pISSN 2384-4353

Table. 2.

Table. 2.

Summary of BoNT injection technique in the treatment of excessive gingival display

Study Product and preparation Units per side (U) Target muscle Injection point (per side) Determination of injection point
Polo, 20056 Botox 2.5 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 5 - 6.25 U 0 mm 2 or 3 point EMG
Polo, 200812 Botox 2.5 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 5 U 0.09 mm 2 point Manual*
Mazzuco and Hexsel, 20107 Dysport 25 U/0.1 mL (AbobotulinumtoxinA) Anterior GS 2.5 or 5 U Anterior GS LLSAN 1 point 1 cm lateral and below the nasal ala
Posterior GS 5 U Posterior GS ZM, Zmi 2 point 2 injection point*
Mixed GS 6.25 U or 7.5 U Mixed GS LLSAN, ZM, Zmi 3 point Both anterior GS and posterior GS injection points
Asymmetric GS 5 U onside and 2.5 U on the other Asymmetric GS ZM, Zmi 2 point Posterior GS injection points
Sucupira and Abramovitz, 201213 Botox 3.1 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 1.95 U LLSAN 1 point 3 to 5 mm lateral to the nostril
Singh et al., 201414 Botox 5 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 3 U LLSAN, DSN 2 point EMG
Suber et al., 201415 Botox 2 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 4 - 6 U LLSAN, LLS 3 point 3 injection point*
Al Wayli, 201916 Botox 2 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) 1.95 U LLSAN, LLS, Zmi 1 point Yonsei point*
Cengiz et al., 202017 Botox 2 U/0.1 mL (OnabotulinumtoxinA) Group 1 2.5 U LLSAN 1 point Most superior point of nasolabial fold
Group 2 1.25 U OO 1 point 5 mm inferior to the central and most inferior point of the nostrils
Hexsel et al., 202018 Dysport 25 U/0.1 mL (AbobotulinumtoxinA) 2.5 U / 5 U / 7 U LLSAN, Zmi 1 point Nasolabial fold, 1 cm below the alar nasii

GS, gummy smile; LLSAN, levator labii superioris alaque nasi; LLS, levator labii superioris; ZM, zygomaticus major; Zmi, zygomaticus minor;

DSN, depressor setpi nasi; OO, orbicularis oris; EMG, electromyographic guidance.

Manual*, determined by muscle animation (smiling) and palpation on contraction; 2 injection point*, (1) nasolabial fold, at the point of greatest lateral contraction during the smile (2) 2 cm lateral to the first point, at the level of the tragus; 3 injection point*, (1) 2 mm lateral to the alar-facial groove (2) 2 mm lateral to the first injection (3) 2 mm inferior and between the first 2 mm sites; Yonsei point*, 1 cm lateral to the ala horizontally and 3 cm above the lip line vertically;

J Dent Rehabil Appl Sci 2021;37:61-72 https://doi.org/10.14368/jdras.2021.37.2.61
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